Tip for Junior Programmers: Tracing Flow Through Code

Learning how code “hangs together” is crucial for all programmers. And it’s not that difficult.

Most software has an entry point, though it varies depending on the language or framework. Find and understand that entry point.

From there just follow the code. In procedural and object-oriented languages you’ll mainly be dealing with IF statements, SWITCH statements, calls to functions and calls to objects with properties and methods.

Watch what is called. Look at the parameters being passed into methods or class constructors.

Look at how variables are manipulated. Consider the scopes of variables and class properties – are the private to a function or class, or are the public? Are function parameters passed by value or by reference?

And think about namespaces – from the variables and functions that sit in the global namespace through to those nested under specific namespaces.

Functions will sometimes seem to be in a global namespace but are actually implicitly at a deeper namespace level thanks to using or include statements in the file (e.g. in C# and VB.NET).

PRO TIP: Make Find All (usually Ctrl+F) your best friend. If you come across a function or variable and don’t know where it’s defined or what it’s used for, any decent IDE with allow you to perform a “Find All” and list out all occurrences of it. Use that to trace the use of the variable/function.

But the most important thing you can do as a programmer is: take the time to read and understand the code. The more years of experience you have the easier and more intuitive it becomes, but always it is important. Learn how to follow the flows, intuit the structure and find where functionality lives.

This is the true heart of most programming activity.

TypeScript: Convert a String Variable to a Number Variable

Sometimes the basics can stump you. And I was stumped this morning when I needed to convert a TypeScript variable of type “string” to a variable of type “number”, including a non-numeric check.

IsNaN() and parseInt() in JavasScript didn’t work because in TypeScript the input parameters are numbers, so immediately that’s a compile time exception.

After a quick search and trusty StackOverflow answer, I came up with the following function:

 * Return the numeric value of a variable if the value is a number, otherwise return zero (0).
function convertToNumber(value: any) : number 
  let convertedToNumber: number = 0;

  if (isNaN(Number(value)) === false) {
    convertedToNumber = Number(value);

  return convertedToNumber;


Running Example

NOTE: You can pop the editor open in a new window by selecting “Edit On StackBlitz” in the bottom-left of the inserted window.
Select the folded-page icon at the top of the left column (below the StackBlizt blue/white icon) to see the list of files.

If you’re using Internet Explorer or there’s just a black window below, here’s the link to the code (and I suggest using a “modern” browser – Chrome and Edge both work): https://stackblitz.com/edit/typescript-x2hpkw.

Father’s Day

It was Dad’s Day in some places in the world recently.
And it’s going to be Dad’s Day here in a couple of months too.

But I’m never going to be a dad.
And my wife will never me a mum.

And as much as I love the mum and dad’s of the world and celebrate them too because they are just so awesome…

I feel a bit sad.

Because there’s nothing I’ll ever be celebrated for. Or my wife.

Because we’re just people. We work hard. We support others. We celebrate others. We act as surrogate “aunts” and “uncles”.
And we do our bit without being recognised as “something”.

And really, my wife and I don’t want recognition.

But with all the recognition to everyone else for everything – for “just being” – …
It’s kind of hard not to feel bad because we just do our bit in the background without ever asking or being noticed.

I find Father’s Day to be sad, really.

A Short Story – 2

“Come to me,” she pleaded. “I’ve got you. You’re safe.”

He walked from the darkness. Broken. Desperate. But the madness, it melted away.

She drew him into her arms. A strong, loving embrace. He wept for her.

A Short Story

“Go to Hell!” he screamed angrily into the darkness.

The darkness smirked back. “Oh no,” she replied icily, “I’m bringing Hell to you.”
The terrifying darkness enveloped him and a chill shot up his spine.

WordPress – Adding post category requires page refresh to show up

I’m developing a plug-in and today, after a bunch of refactoring, found myself not able to add a category or tag to a Post and have it show in the list (as in this sort of screen):


If found the guiding answer at on StackOver at https://stackoverflow.com/a/50656747/115704 and while I also provided the following as an answer on that post I find the moderators on StackOverflow to overzealous pricks and likely to screw with my contributions, so I’m recording it here as well.

The cause

The ultimate cause is white space in PHP files appearing before the opening and closing of PHP code.

Finding the culprit is the hard part and that where I might be able to help.


What I said

I experienced this issue today, and white space in PHP files was the problem.

However, I want to share the steps I took to resolve the issue:

  1. I tried opening every PHP file and checking for blank lines at the start and end of the file. I picked up a few problems but the issue persisted.
  2. I was also able to do a regex search in my IDE for problems. I used Textmate/Regex: Strip whitespace from beginning/end of file as a reference point and [without quotation marks] the following regex searches “https://regex101.com/r/5EExaF/1” to find space/blank lines at the end of a file, and “https://regex101.com/r/qs17J9/1” for the start of a file.
  3. There were still problems so I narrowed down the scope by disabling plug-ins (I also knew it was one of my own plug-ins in the site I’m developing, so that made it easier).
  4. Re-activating a plug-in give a warning “The plugin generated X characters of unexpected output during activation”. This helped me in the trial-and-error process of narrowing down the source.
  5. Once I had the plug-in identified, I started commenting out require_once() calls in PHP files until the “The plugin generated X characters of unexpected output” warning disappeared.
  6. Eventually, I realised I’d broken the plug-in during refactoring and was doing a require_once() on a PHP file that was pure HTML (to inject favicon tags into a page header) rather than the appropriate add_action() call on the file as I originally intended.

Hopefully, these debug steps provide some inspiration to other people suffering the same problem. As far as I know, WordPress does not offer any easy way to identify the cause of this problem (i.e. it does not identify which file has bad spaces in it).

NOTE: I had to link to regex101 to shoe the actual values because WordPress or WordFence seems to not like regex in posts.